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1 LIETUVOS ISTORIJOS INSTITUTAS LIETUVOS ISTORIJOS METRASTIS 2006 metai 1 Ill mldmia Vilnius 2007

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3 1.i\ LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF IHSTORY `` THE YEAR-BOOK OF LITHUANIAN HISTORY VILNIUS 2007 LITAUISCIHS INSTITUT FUR GESCHICITIE JAmucH FUR LITAUISCHE GESCHICHTE VILNIUS 2007

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5 ISSN LIETUVOS ISTORIJOS METRASTIS METAI, I. VILNIUS, 2007 THE YEAR-BOOK OF LITHUANIAN HISTORY /I. VILNIUS, 2007 PUBLIRACIJA VLADAS S I R U T A V I C I U S SLAPTASIS LKP CK PLENUMAS Bene ry kiausias 1989 in. politinis ivykis, perzenges Lietuvos, Pabaltijo kra5tu, Sovietu Sap.ungos ribas ir sulaukes nemazo atgarsio Vakaruose, buvo Baltijos kelias. Rugpjti6io 23 d. Lietuvos, Latvijos ir Estijos Zmones nutiese gyva grandine nuo Talino iki Vilniaus. Sekminga Baltijos kelio akcija pasauliui pademonstravo ne tik didziuli Sap.tidzio, Liaudies frontu Estijoje bei Latvijoje populiaruma 0.ie buvo 5ios akcijos organizatoriai). Svarbu tai, kad gyvu Zmoniu grandine atstovavo tarn tikrai politinei programai, kuria keliais Zodziais galima btitu nusakyti mazdaug taip: istorinis teisingumas turi btiti atkurtas, tai, kas buvo sunaikinta 1939 in. rugpjti6io 23 d. Sovietu ir Vokietijos susitarimais, privalo btiti atkurta. Ta pa6ia rugpjti6io 23 d. Pabaltijo tautiniai judejimai paskelbe bendra kreipimasi i pasauli, kuris buvo nusiustas i Jungtiniu Tautu Organizacija. Jame pasaulio bendruomenei priekai tauta, kad Baltijos tautos ilgai buvo uzmir5tos ir su viltimi pazymima, kad galiausiai tarptautines teises bus paisoma ne tik Afrikoje ir Azijoje, bet ir Europoje]. Kremliaus reakcija i ivykius pasirode jau rugpjti6io 23 d., ir nukreipta ji buvo pirmiausia pries Lietuva. (Galbtit todel, kad Lietuvoje Baltijos kelio akcija sulauke gausiausios paramos, o gal ir del to, kad i Saltidzio organizuota akcija sutapo su kita -para u rinkimo del okupacines kariuomenes i vedimo). Taigi rugpjti6io 23 d. SSKP oficioze Pravda" buvo i spausdintas straipsnis Tiktai faktai". Jame buvo sudeti ivairfus sattidie6iu (8. Genzelio, R. Gudai6io, V. Landsbergio) pasisakymai apie Sovietu Sap.ungos dirbtinuma bei apie btitinuma atkurti Lietuvos nepriklausomybe, taip pat pateiktos i traukos i Gotlando deklaracijos (apie Sovietu Satungos okupuota I A. E. S e n n, Gorb cvj.ovo #esgkmg!.e/wvo/.e, Vilnius, 1997, p

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7 Po tokiu vertinimu SSKP CK konstatavo: Nueita toli. Pabaltijo tautu likimui gresia rimtas pavojus. Zmones turi Zinoti, prie kokios bedugnes juos stumia nacionalistu lyderiai. Jeigu jiems pavyktu pasiekti savo tikslus, padariniai tautoms btitu katastrofi ki. Galetu i kilti klausimas del paties ju gyvybingumo``. Siuos parei kimo Zodzius galima buvo interpretuoti jau ne tik kaip perspejima, bet ir kaip tarn tikra grasinima. Tiesa, tiesioginiu uzuominiu apie galima jegos ir prievartos panaudojima parei kime nebuvo. Pabaigoje parei kimo tonas tapo netgi kiek ramesnis - triju Baltijos respubliku tautu problemu sprendimas sietas su artejan6iu SSKP CK plenumu del nacionalinio klausimo. Apskritai galima btitu teigti, kad Maskva, piktindamasi padetimi Pabaltijyje, ai kaus apsisprendimo, ka daryti, neturejo. Lietuvos valdzia i SSKP CK parei kima sureagavo Zaibi kai. Rugpjti5io 28 d. buvo su auktas LKP CK XX plenumas. Jame pasakytos kalbos nespausdintos, todel visuomeneje jam buvo priklijuota slapto" plenumo etikete6. Spaudoje paskelbtas tik LKP CK parei kimas7. Parei kimo pradzioje isreikstas pritarimas SSKP CK nerimui ir susirfupinimui" del padeties Pabaltijo respublikose. Kartu pasistengta parodyti, kad LKP politinis kursas yra realisti kas ir rezultatyvus. Parei kime pazymima: LKP CK tvirtai isitikines, kad tautinio atgimimo salygoms gimes principas Lietuva be suvereniteto -Lietuva -be ateities`` irode savo gyvybinguma, gavo liaudies pritarima...`` Toliau paai kinta, I.og tas principas gali btiti realizuotas lygiateisiu respubliku Sajungoje``. Svarbiausiu LKP uzdaviniu ivardytas ekonominio savaranki kumo praktinis isyvendinimas``. Parei kime taip pat pareik ta kritika avantitiristinems jegoms``, kurios per asmenines ambicijas nematan6ios atvertu duru``, nepaiso esamu galimybiu, is esmes uzkerta kelia pertvarkai, sukuria neigiama nuomone Salyje". Pagrindine parei kimo mintis - Lietuvos Komunistu partija (bei ja palaikantys pazangtis visuomeniniai judejimai) i esmes yra vienintele jega, kuri gali toliau vesti Lietuva pertvarkos keliu". *** Skelbiamas XX LKP CK plenumo protokolas`` - tai plenume dalyvavusiu CK nariu pasisakymai. Protokolas turejo btiti sura ytas lietuviu kalba. Ta6iau originalo lietuviu kalba nepavyko rasti. I 1iko jo vertimas i rusu kalba, saugomas Lietuvos ypatingajame archyve (f. 1771, ap. 272, b. 22, ). Jis ir skelbiamas. 6 Rugpjti6io 30 d. A. Brazauskas lankesi Siauliuose ir susitiko su miesto partijos komiteto aktyvu. Susitikimo metu kazkuris i partie6iu paklause A. Brazausko, kodel nepublikuojami XX plenumo dalyviu pasisakymai. Jis atsake, I.og taip nutares plenumas - bijota, kad tiems, kuriu kalbos nepatiko, Zmones langu neisdauzytu". HHcbMa rpa)i{; ah 8 I K KH JIHTBbl Ho BollpocaM Hal HOHabHblx otholllehhh, L!.cfwvo``' yp f!.#g A`[.4' rcdyvab', f.1771, ap. 272, b.159,i ri.cl``, , Nr

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9 cobeta JIHTOBCKoffi ccp, KypHc H. M. -MHHHCTp rocthi H14 J114TOBCKori ccp, MopKyHac 8. A. -MHHHCTp rlo Tpyj y 14 col Ha]IbHOMy o6eclleqeh14ro JIHTOBCKori CCP, HoxeJla 10. K. -IIpe3HHeHT AKa; emhh HayK JIHTOBCKofi CCP. BCTyr"Te]IbHoe c]iobo IIepBoro cekpetapfl I K KOMIIap"H JIHTBbl T. BPA3AycKACA A.-M. K. 8 IIopquKe BcrymITeTHHoro ctioba pa3pemhte NIle BblcKa3aTh HecKojlE,KO MLlcjleri. OqepeHHoe 3aceHaHHe KOMHccHH Ho]"T6ropo I]K KHCC IIo Hpl46aJI"Ke coctoh]iocl] 4 abrycta*. 3apaHee H He 3Ha]I, qto oho coctohtcjl, IIo3TOMy 6blTI Bbl3BaH 143 otrlycka. Ha 3ace; ahh14 H3 mec" q]iehob KOMIIccHH HPHcyTCTBOBa]" tletblpe. Bbljl 3ac]IyllleH Mori otqet o IIo]IHTHqecKOM rlojloxehi" 8 peclly6tmke. OHHH H3 OclloBHblx BonpocoB, KOTOpblri paccmatphbajlcfl 14 HO KOTOpOMy MHoro robopllllocl], ~ 3To pelllell" XVIII H]IeHyMa I K KOMIIap"H JIIITBI>I, coctojlbmerocfl 26 HroHfl, Mofi ; ok]ia;i Ha HeM H Ball" BI>ICTyH]IeHHfl. Ha TOM H]IeHyMe, KaK 81>1 IIOMHIITe, BI>ICTyHHJlo 6oTlee 20 tljlehob I K H Hpyrl4x KOMMyH14cTOB, Hpl4r]IallleHHblx Ha HjleHyM. PeaKI 14fl 8 otholllehhh Hamero HjleHyMa c]ioxhajl, H MoXHo IIOHflTI] rloqemy. HOTOMy, tlto BOHpoc o eh14rlctbe KOMMyH14c"qecKori IIapTH14 CoBeTCKoro Colo3a flb]hetcfl oqel-ib qybct814tejlbhblm, otlem IIenpHBblqHblM. KaK BaM H3BecTHo, Mbl HOTlro H 6ypHo o6cy>i{; aj" 3TOT He6oTII>mofi IIpoeKT noctahobtlehhfl H IIPHHflTm ero 6onbmHHCTBOM ro]iocob. Hotl" Bce BI>ICTynHBml4e, 3a 14cKJlroqeHHeM IIapl>I tle]iobelt. Bblclta3aTIHcb 3a co3i]ib ct>e3; a KOMHap"14 JIHTBbl 8 Tel(yll em ro; y, 3a HOHroTOBny IIpolpaMMI>I, ctaryca KOMnapTrm J114TBbl 14 j pylrmc HOKyMeHroB, KOTOpble MoryT rlohaho6hti]cfl 8 xo; e ; HCKycc"**. MI]I o6"biij", a BepHee y3akohh]" 3Ty ; HCKyccHro, I(oTopafl Haqa]Iacb cllolltailho. A Be; b pa3robop HHeT o CaMOcTOFTeJII]HOC" IIJ" abtohomlm KOMHapTrm JIHTBbl, HejlcHo [ axe Kal{ 14 Ha3BaTb 3TO, 1160 TaKoro OHpe; e]iehhh rloka ellie 8 HpaKTHKe IIallle# IIap"rillori xl43m He 6blJlo. 5To 6bl]I o;lull H3 cami]ix TpyHHblx o6cyxhaemblx BonpocoB. BI>IJla HeJlerKaH * Ati.odo, jog SSKP CK Politbiuras tokia komisija suktire dar 1989 in. pradzioje. Jai vadovavo Vadimas Medvedevas, o i jos sudeti iejo itakingi SSKP CK veikejai: Georgijus Razumovskis, Viktoras Cebrikovas, Jurijus Masliukovas, Dimitrijus Jazovas, Vladimiras Kriu5kovas, Nikolajus Sliunkovas. Anot A. Brazausko: Toji komisija veike labai savoti kai. <...> Visi jos nariai suseda vienoje stalo puseje, o kitoje - tik a vienas. Vienas pries I.uos e is. Ir labai ilgai, kartais net po 5-6 valandas, jie inanes nepaleisdavo. Pries tai i Lietuva atvaziuodavo tikrintoju grupe, surinkdavo kuo ivairiausia medziaga, ir komisija btidavo pasiruo usi. Informacija ji gaudavo i saugumo (KGB), i kariniu ir partiniu Zynybu. Jie visi Ziiiodavo daugybe trdkumu" Lietuvoje, o a turedavau viska paai kinti, atsakyti i visus klausimus" (A. 8 r a z a u s k a s. Apsi.b`p7.e#cJj.#7czs /988-/99/, Vilnius, 2004 p ). ** LKP XVIII plenumo medziaga skelbta partjneje spaudoje: 7T.cJ.`., ] , Nr. ]47, 148, 149. Plenume nutarta metu pabaigoje su aukti neeilini partijos suvaziavima ir jame spresti atskiros nuo SSKP, savaranki kos" LKP suktirimo klausima. 81

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27 pyth 8 cbol4x pykax. CtHITaro, tito 8 3TOM 3am7Ielrml Halllero I eltlpajthhoro Kormrmera cjlehobajlo 6bl HaHHcaTb, tlto I ehtpajlbhblri KOMIITeT Hamefi IIap"H, Hpe3HHHyM, CoBeT MmmcTpoB, pykobohctbo pecrly6jrmch rlpmmj" I ejlbri pqu KOHcxpyKnlBIThlx Mep no cta6ii]"3al HH IIo]IoxeH" 8 pecrly6j"ke, IIpeoHo]IeHHro HeKOTopblx KPH3HCHblx MOMeHTOB H HMeroTCH ollpehe]iehhble Pe3y]II>TaTI>I, xotfl, pa3ymeetcfl, 6bl]" ell e HeKOTopble He; octatkh, Ho OHH cero; " He3HaqHTe]IbHI]I. O; HaKo IIOTIHOcTBro HHCKpej HTHpOBaTh pykobohhte]iefi Hallleri peclry6]ihkh HeTlb3H. Tpe"fi MOMeHT. Ho MoeMy MHeHHro, Tpe6oBaHHe HeKOTopl>Ix BblcTyllaBII"x 3Hecb TOBapHII efi o6 ot3blbe pemehiih XVIII H]IeHyMa Bbl3BaTlo 681 cobeplhehho HexeTlaeMylo 6ypro. MHe IIpmllrlocb ytlactbobath Bo MHolrmL IIapTlrfumlx co6parllrm, H fl 3Haro MHeHHe KOMMyHHCTOB Hamero pafioha. ECJ" ceroh" Mbl cka3a" 6bl, qto pemeh" xvlll HjleHyMa flb]iflrotor HenericTBHTe]IbHblMH, TO HpaKTHqecKH Mbl cobeplllehho ckomiipomhthpoba]" 6bl KOMHap"Io JIHTBbl, HOHopBaTm 6bl cbofi abtophtet. CqHTalo, qto MecHI, HBa, TPH cllyc" HaqaTlcH 61>1 MaccoBblfi yxoh H3 HapTHH. Mbl Ho]IXHbl rlpobec" 8 xh3hb peme"h XVIII II]IeHyMa, IIpoHo]IXHTb ; HCKyccl4Io, rotobiiti>ch K IIpeHCTOHII emy cbe3hy H Ha 3TOM ct>e3; e pelhhte]ibho cka3ath o IIo3Iqum Kormnyrmc"tlecKOH IIapTrm JIIITBI>I 8 ycitobirmc HalHOH cnyalqu. 3Toro >KnyT Hal" KOMMyHHCTbl. T. P. CTOHHC - IIepBI,Ira cekpetape, K]IaELencKoro parfucoma KONIlaprrm JIHTBI,I. TOBapmlur ytlacltmlch IuleHyMa! BKpaTI e xoteul 6bl Ho; enitbor cbormaii rmlc"nii Ho IIOBony 3aHRTermfl IJeHTpaJlbHoro KormTeTa KOMMyrmc"tlecKOH Hapnm JIIITBbl. Ho MoeMy MHeHHro, 3To 3ajlB]IeHHe - npflmoe xetlahhe IIepe; atb 3aflB]IeHHe I eltlpatlbhoro KONITreTa KIICC o6ii ectbemoc" JIIrml>I. CtnITaro, FTo Fro xetlal"e, KOTopl]IM IIpaKTIIqecKH HejlaroTCH IIolll]ITKII cmhrqhtb HeKOTopl]Ie rlo]ioxehhjl, HOBOTIE>Ho KaTeroplrmn>I 8 o6pall elun4 IJelTlpamHoro KONITliera KIICC. H IIomocThro cor]iaceh c MHeHHeM T. KapraMaBIIqloca, tlto 3To 3ajlB]IeHHe Heo6xoHI"o o6cyhhtb 8 IIap"HHblx oprah143al HHx. O; HaKo H He cobcem ybepeh, qto xo" 61>1 c HallleH IIap"HHori oprah143al HH KjlaHIIeHCKoro pafioha I]ejlllKOM H Ho]IHocTBro 6y; et oho6peho 3To o6pall ehhe. H H cam ]IHqHo cqhtaro, qto HeHCTBIITe]IbHo Roe-r; e cryll ehbl KpacKII H He06OcHOBaHHO cryll ehi>i KpacKH H He06OcHOBaHHO 3aocTpeHa chryallhh 8 pecrly6]"ke. He xote]i 6B1 corjlachtbch H c TeM, qto KacaeTcfl Teppopa, 0 qem 3aaKI ehthpobaho. Ecj" KormpeTHo KacaThor 3aHB]IeH", To ctrmaro, tlto HaHa HellpaBIrmHan ol ehka cbh3" c 3apy6e)Km>IM14 oprahh3alqumh H mloctpalh amh. HpaK"qeclor oro IIPH3I>IB OIIHTb 803BpaTIITbor K xe]ie3homy 3aHaBecy. ctlhtaro TaKxe HellpaBII]IbHori OI ehky IIo3Hi IIH o IIpoHe]IaHHori pa6ote 8 3Tofi o6tlac" Bropo, HamllMH cekpetaphmh I ehtpa]ibhoro KOMHTeTa peclly6]"ion. Boo6II e He xoteti 61>1 cor]iachthor c TaKHM 99

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41 T. 8. APBAtlHycKAC - rlepbblfi cekpetapl> JleH14HCKoro pafikoma KOMnapTI" JIHTBI]I r. KayHaca Tax KaK Mofi Ko]IJlera yxe robophji, jl He xoqy IIOBTopHTbcH, He xoqy 3a qto- To arllthpobati>. Xoqy ]IHmb cka3ati]. qto 25 abrycta coctofljlocb o6t>e; HIIeHHoe 3acez ahhe 6ropo ropkoma napti" 14 6ropo Bcex parikomob HapT14H r. KayHaca, I(oTopoe IIPHHHJlo CBoe 3ajlBJlellHe. 8 HeM rlotihocti>io oho6pfletcjl HpoBOHHMajl Ha HblHemHeM 3Tane rlo]ihthka I K KOMrlap"H JIHTBbl, HanpaBTleHHafl rla HocTHxeHHe camoctohtejlbhoc" pechy6]"k14 H ee IIapTHH. BMecTe c TeM BLlpzixaeTcfl IIpoTecT npothb HaqaBmeficH IIpoHaraH"cTCKori KaMrlal I ehtpa]ii]hoh HeqaT ajlB]IeHHH TaKxe ocy3i{hehi>i H abahtlophcthqeckhe ; efictbhfl Tex xhtejleri JIHTBI>I, KOTopl]Ie cjlyxat cntloqehhro KOHcepBaT14BHblx chjl KaK 8 JIHTBe, TaK H 3a ee IIpeHeJlaMH. tlto KacaeTcfl 3ajlB]IeH" I K KHCC, To H TaKxe xoqy BI>Ipa3HTb cboe MHeHHe. cor]iaceh c TeMH TOBapHil amh, KOTOpl>Ie robophj" 0 TOM, tlto yhom14haemble 8 ;IOKyMeilTe dyaktbl I erictbhtejlbho HMeroTcfl 8 HaHlefi xh3h14. o; HaKo 8 I e]iom 8 3ajlB]IeH14H I K KHCC KpacKH cryli ehi>i. HecKo]II]Ko cjlob IIo othejlbhblm dyal(tam. H ctlhtaro, qto IIpa814Te]II,cTBo J114TBbl (o6 3TOM yxe ceroh" robopht" MHo"e), co3hahhi>ie 14M Pa3jlHtlHble KOM14CcHH HMeloT IIpaBo, 14 He TojlbKo HMeroT, IIo 14 06H3aHbl BblcKa3aTb cboe MIIeHHe 0 cjloxl4biiiericfl 06uecTBeilllo-rlo]"T14tlecKori clltyai H14, HCTopHqecK14x co6i>ithflx Hpom]Ioro 14 HacTojlll ero. HecKo]II>Ko ctlob o T. 10. HajleHKHce, TaK Kalt 6bljl TaKori pa3robop. CtlHTaro, qto TaKHe JlroHH, KaK oh, HyxHbl IIapTHH, a TeM 6o]Iee allllapaty l ehtpa]ibhoro KOMHTeTa. HacTpori cerohhflmhero Halllero rl]iehyma MeHjl eil e pa3 y6exhaet 8 TOM, qto ct,e3h KOMMyl"c"qecltori HapTHH J114TBbl -He06xOHHM H Hel436exeH. HacTpoeH" 8 Hep814tlHI>Ix Hap"rilll>Ix OpraHH3al I"x He cobcem cobiia; arot c llaprur" 3; ecl> HacTpoel"eM, H 06 9TOM xopoiho 3HaloT IIepBble cekpetaph. H03TOMy lryxllo rlpo;]o]ixatb HHCKyccHIO c ctaryce KOMHapTI" JIHTBbl, c TeM qt06i,i pa3ymi-io HOHoii" K HalHeMy cbe3hy. T. 5. THTHIIIKHC -IIepBI>Iri 3aMecTHTe]II> KOMHTeTa HapoHIIoro KOHTpoJljl JIIITOBCKori CCP, tljlell HK KOMrlapTrm JIITrBbl TOBap14urll! H Xoqy BepHyTI>cH K camomy Haqa]Iy Hamero ntlehyma, K HHdyopMal HH T. A. Bpa3aycKaca o ero 6eceHax c rehepatii,hi" cekpetapem T. M. C. rop6aqebblm. Bbljlo 6bl, KOHeqHo, HHTepecHo ycjlbllllatb H BTopylo oropohy` KaK HalH cekpetapb OTBeqa]I rehepanbhomy cekpetapro. 8 HeJIOM, H ; ymaro, HaM XBaTIIT Hap"fiHoro MyxecTBa 14 otbetctbelllloc" ouo6prm 3aHBJlel"e I]K KIICC. H xore71 6bl, FTo6I>I MI>I He IIolllTm Ha KOHdypolITalquo 113

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